“This country, the Republic of Indonesia, does not belong to any group, nor to any religion, nor to any ethnic group, nor to any group with customs and traditions, but the property of all of us from Sabang to Merauke!” ― Sukarno, Speech in Bangkok, 24 September 1955.



Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 17,508 islands. It encompasses 35 provinces with over 238 million people, making it the world’s fourth most populous country. Indonesia constitution (1945 constitution) assigns the government to give equal opportunities for all citizen in education Act no 20/2003 on national education system: -”every citizen has equal rights to obtain quality education” (chapter 5 article 1).

            Indonesia has a 6-3-3 formal education structure. Primary school has an official entry age of seven and duration of six grades. Secondary school is divided into two cycles: lower secondary consists of grades 7 – 9, and upper secondary consists of grades 10 – 12. Basic education consists of primary and lower secondary school. In principle, public school is free and basic education is compulsory. Students sit for the lower secondary school certificate examination at the end of grade 9, and the senior secondary certificate at the end of grade 12.The academic year is broken down into two semesters and lasts approximately 38 weeks.

From the age of 2, some children in Indonesia attend pre-school playgroup, known as PAUD (Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini). From the age of 4, they attend kindergarten (Taman Kanak-Kanak). This education is not compulsory for Indonesian citizens, as it is aimed to prepare them for Primary Schooling. Of the 49,000 kindergartens in Indonesia, 99.35% of them are privately operated schools. The kindergarten years are usually divided into “Class A” and “Class B” students spending a year in each class.

Indonesians are required to attend nine years of school. They can choose between state-run, nonsectarian public schools supervised by the Ministry of National Education (Mendiknas) or private or semiprivate religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Ministry of Religious Affairs. However, although 86.1 percent of the Indonesian population is registered as Muslim, according to the 2000 census only 15 percent of school-age individuals attended religious schools. Overall enrollment figures are slightly higher for girls than boys and much higher in Java than the rest of Indonesia.


A central goal of the national education system is not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state, its bureaucracies, and its moral and ideological foundations. Beginning under Guided Democracy (1959–65) and strengthened in the New Order after 1966, a key feature of the national curriculum—as was the case for other national institutions—has been instruction in the Pancasila. Children age six and older learned by rote its five principles—belief in one God, humanitarianism, national unity, democracy, and social justice—and were instructed daily to apply the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. But with the end of the New Order in 1998 and the beginning of the campaign to decentralize the national government, provincial and district-level administrators obtained increasing autonomy in determining the content of schooling.

Children aged 6–11 attend primary school, called Sekolah Dasar (SD). Most elementary schools are government-operated public schools, accounting for nearly 93% of all elementary schools in Indonesia (Depdiknas, 2004-2005). Students spend six years in primary school, though some schools offer an accelerated learning program in which students that perform well can complete the level in five years. Three years of middle school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama, or SMP) follow elementary school. After completion of the six-year primary-school program, three years of junior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama, or SMP), and then may be followed by three years of senior secondary school (Sekolah Menengah Atas or SMA.); or students can choose among a variety of vocational and pre-professional senior secondary schools (Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan or SMK), each level of which requires three years of study. There are academic and vocational high schools that lead to senior-level diplomas. There are also “domestic science” high schools for girls. At the senior high school level, three-year agricultural, veterinary, and forestry schools are open to students who have graduated from an academic junior high school. Students with disabilities/special needs may alternately opt to be enrolled in a separate school from the mainstream called Sekolah Luar Biasa, school for children with special needs (lit. Special Education School).


Indonesian schools (from kindergarten to university) are divided in public (negeri) and private (swasta) schools. The demand for schools is higher than the supply and the number of both types of schools has been growing rapidly in recent decades. The public schools are fully government owned, meaning the land, buildings and facilities are fully subsidized. School teachers and staff are civil servants, which gives them status, a relatively reasonable wage and a pension scheme. Like public schools, private schools receive an amount of money per student. However they do have to find their own sources of money for land, buildings, facilities and wages. Because of this, and contrary to most countries, public schools are generally of better quality. Their facilities are more complete and the teachers are of better quality. The elite schools are the oldest schools, mostly built before independence. Both public and private (often catholic) elite schools charge high fees to be able to provide high quality and status.

Basic education offered in primary schools aims to provide the ability to read, write, and do arithmetic, and to instill primary knowledge and skills that are useful for pupils in line with their development levels, as well as to prepare students to attend education in lower secondary school. Basic education is also carried out in lower secondary schools and is aimed at expanding the knowledge and improvement of skills obtained in primary schools that are useful for students to develop their lives as individuals, members of society, and citizens. Article 39, Clause 3, Law No. 2 /1989 and Article 14, Clause 2, Government Regulation No. 28 of 1990, and the February 25, 1993 decree of the Ministry of Education and Culture No. 060/U/1993 prescribe the education program for primary schools. The curriculum content of compulsory primary education consists of subject matter covering Pancasila education, religious education, citizenship education, Indonesian language, reading and writing, mathematics, introduction to science and technology, geography, national and general history, handicrafts and art, physical education and health, drawing, and the English language. And after announcing Indonesian new Curriculum 2013, there some changes have been made, such as number of subjects are reduced and the number of hours have increased.



During the period of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC), the educational effort was rather minuscule. Whatever happened was done by the VOC in cooperation with the state church in agreement with the principle regnant at that time of the oneness between church and school, the unity between church and state. However, with the exception of the area of the Moluccas, in general the pupils were Dutch and Indo (children of Dutch and Indonesian parents), or non- Indonesian Asians. In this connection, Governor General Daendels who assumed office in 1807 took a beginning step. In 1808, he directed several regents in Java to organize schools for indigenous children with a curriculum, which included Javanese culture and religion so that the children would grow up to become good Javanese. He also initiated the opening of several vocational schools. This idea grew; it seems, out of the enthusiasm generated by the Enlightenment. Because of its influence in the Netherlands, people began to hear the slogan, “national education,” or “universal education”. England, which exercised temporary authority (in all of the Dutch East Indies from 1811- 1816, and in Sumatra until 1825) through Lieutenant Governor General Thomas Stamford Raffles, also exhibited the enthusiasm of the Enlightenment. These included the organization of two types of schools: one using western language (Europeesche scholen) both at the elementary and secondary levels, and the other using the regional language(inlandsche scholen) limited to the elementary level. Indigenous children from the upper classes were permitted to attend the European school.

After 1848, thanks to their efforts, the Indies government itself became more serious about offering educational opportunities to Indonesians, instead of handing schooling over to others, including missionaries. This endeavor was parallel to the Gouvernements-cultures program, or as it was more familiarly known cultuurstelsel, which needed the services of educated Indonesians. Thus after 1848, there were various new decisions to expand school opportunities for Indonesians, including organizing of teacher-training facilities.

The new policy taken in 1863 by Fransen van de Putte, the Minister for Colonies, encouraged the mobilization of government funds for education without requiring the financial support of the indigenous community, and was a reflection of the politics of liberal education. Here it was evident that the government-sponsored education was no longer directed towards the production of governmental employees, but was directed towards the aim of developing indigenous communities. Thorbecke, the Dutch prime minister in 1849-1853 and 1862-1866, first promulgated this liberal conception of education. He emphasized, “It is our task, our responsibility, to enlighten the East Indies through liberal education.” As a result of this new policy, the total number of schools increased rapidly, especially in Java. Administrative organization was also undertaken with more seriousness, for example the office of inspector for indigenous education was established, and after January 1, 1867 a Department of Education, Religion and Industry (Departement van Onderwijs, Eeredienst en Nijverheid), was also formed. However, the more important development occurred during the 1870s and was characterized by the promulgation of a whole new series of regulations.10 In these regulations were included the following: (a) Standardization of all East Indies elementary schools; (b) Utilization of the regional language or Malay as the medium of instruction; (c) Prohibition of religious instruction for Indonesians studying in government schools (both for elementary schools as well as teacher-training schools) and also in private schools subsidized by the government during curriculum hours. In other words, the government followed a policy of neutrality in religious matters; (d) Mandatory payment of tuition as an indication of participation by the local community. All of these indicated the increasing liberal influence in the educational policy of the Indies government, as made clear by Brugmans: “Liberalism, with its strong rationalistic bent, followed the slogan “knowledge is power”. Because it was evident that Europe had become great thanks to Western knowledge, there was no need in principle to raise objections to the spread of knowledge in indigenous societies. Emphasis on Dutch elements in education formed the clearest indication of this view.”


Since the establishment of the above-mentioned regulations, government schools increased rapidly at first, especially so after special schools were founded for the children of nobility (Hoofdenscholen). But after the beginning of the 1880s there was a marked slowing down in the rate of developing new government schools.

During the years 1905-1907, several officials from both the Dutch government and the colonial government of the Indies enunciated this new policy. The most important element of the new policy as included in the Staatsblad 1906, no. 241 and 242 consisted of the organizing of schools in all the villages, especially on the island of Java. According to the new regulations, the village was responsible for erecting and furnishing the school building, while the Indies government or regional government’s treasury would pay the teachers’ salaries according to the prevailing standard for village employees. In other words, the government moved towards a policy of decentralization and the cultivation of community participation. Because the main objective for village schools involved little more than the abolition of illiteracy, it was considered sufficient to teach the children reading, writing and arithmetic. This limited objective could be attained in three years. Initially, this policy resulted in a rapid increase in the number of schools. However, not all private schools founded after the 1920s were labeled ‘unauthorized’. In addition to Protestant and Catholic mission schools receiving recognition and subsidies were those sponsored by the Muhammadiyah movement. However, the Taman Siswa schools founded in 1922 by Ki Hadjar Dewantara (original name Soewardi Soerjaningrat) were originally considered unauthorized but gradually they became recognized even though the schools rejected all government subsidies. Furthermore, MULO using Javanese founded in 1939 as a Taman Siswa idea was praised by the government in 1940 as exemplary for its contribution to the educational system. Unfortunately, it never had an opportunity to provide concrete evidence of its achievement because the authority of the Dutch East Indies government ended at the beginning of 1942. From the perspective of quality, government schools, especially those organized along western lines: ELS, HIS, MULO, HBS, AMS, and vocational schools such as OSVIA, STOVIA and NIAS, produced a new ‘functional elite’.

The actual point of beginning mission schooling differed in each area, because the time of arrival of missionaries and the places of ministry of the various mission boards differed as well. For example, in the Moluccas, the NZG had an educational program since 1815, this was followed in Timor in 1819, and 1827 in Minahasa.36 After that, the Rhenish mission (RMG) founded schools in Kalimantan in 1835, and among the Bataks in 1861, and later in Nias and other islands along the west coast of Sumatera. The NZG was active in Java also since 1851 having succeeded in obtaining permission from the Dutch East Indies government.



Suharto and his advisors recognized the importance of agricultural production, they also recognized the importance of being able to provide people with the means to obtain food. To buy food, one must have a job. Creating jobs in Indonesia started with education. As he had done in agriculture, Suharto and the Indonesian government transformed the country’s education system. The state reformed the primary and secondary education systems, providing near universal enrollment for children between 8 to 11 years old. The illiteracy rate dropped to 18.4%, lower than that of neighboring Malaysia. While Indonesia still had a long way to go in terms of educationby the end of the Suharto regime, the fact remains that a large portion of the labor force received at least some education due to the government education system, which was virtually nonexistent under Sukarno’s presidency. In the1970s, Indonesia had a national program that increased elementary school enrollment form 69 to 83 percent. The current wages to the education in the region of birth of the wage earner and concludes that one extra school per 1000 children led to an increase in wage of 1.5 to 2.7 percent. This counters the general concern that the results of increasing quantity will be offset by reduced quality. Besides the quality of education, the quantity plays an important role too.                                                                            

The Indonesian school system, since the days of Soeharto, is based on the American school system. Six years of elementary school are followed by three years of junior high school, totaling nine years of compulsory education. After this, students choose a vocational school or senior high school, followed by university. There are several school standards: the national standard, national plus and international standard. The difference is in the quality and amount of English used in class.   


The Ministry of Religious Affairs is responsible for the Islamic preschools, primary schools, junior secondary schools, and senior secondary schools. Provision of higher education is managed by the Ministry of National Education and Culture through the directorate general of higher education, as well as by the Military Academy and the College for Civil Servants.Technically, the government is responsible for financing education. However, costs for education carried out by the community are recognized as the responsibility of those institutions. In some cases the government funding is limited to specific elements of compulsory education. The education programs funded by the government are mainly financed through the administration’s annual budget along with a separate development budget. Other funding sources are international aid (loans and grants) and assistance from regional governments and the private sector.

Primary school is free and theoretically requires no fees. Routine assistance for financing the middle and higher levels of education is the responsibility of the family in the form of a school fee paid to the state by each school to be reallocated back to the schools through an account known as the Education Funds Support. While the government offers subsidies to universities and among the various regions, it strongly encourages the participation of the local government, community and business in educational finance. Essentially each educational institution is expected to manage its own admission process and finances.

The Ministry of Education budget has expanded continuously over time. Within the first five-year development planning period or Repelita (1969-1973) the budget was 147 billion rupiah. There was a marked increase in monies appropriated in 1973 in support of the presidential decree launching the compulsory six years of primary school education. The budget increased to 12.9 trillion rupiah during the Fifth Repelita (1989-1993), and financial allocations for the first year of the Sixth Repelita (1994-1999) expanded to 4.6 trillion rupiah. The annual percentage of MOEC budget fluctuates in close proximity to the gross domestic product (GDP).


The Ministry of Education designs most education policy (the Ministry of Religion generally copies this) and is responsible for education policy and the distribution of funds. The policy and funds trickle down from the ministry to the provinces education authorities and from there to the municipalities and regional authorities (who have the same legal status). The regional authorities and municipalities distribute the money to the schools. The Bantuan Operasional Sekolah (BOS – Operational school help) is an amount per student per year for SD and SMP students. The money is intended to finance the operational costs of the compulsory education program and provided to both public and private schools. The amount for SMP students is higher than for SD students and the amount per student is higher in the city than in the rural areas. Besides the BOS, public schools are completely financed by the government and are not allowed to charge additional fees. An exception is made for schools that offer the higher educational standard (involving a partly English curriculum). The private schools have to find other sources of money (the BOS is not enough to completely finance a school) and private SMA schools do not receive any government funds at all. Non-formal schools are taken care of by the regional authority and municipality when it concerns permits and policy, but are dependent on the Ministry in Jakarta for funds. Each year they have to file a proposal and hope they are eligible for a one year block grant.

Indonesia is currently finalizing the implementation of its nine-year compulsory free education program. The focus now is on improving equality of learning opportunities, improving the quality of research and improving management through more local autonomy and decentralized education initiatives. The goal is that Indonesian learners must be smart and competitive by 2025 (Ministry of National Education, 2008). The vision of the Indonesian Departemen Pendidikan Nasional (Ministry of Education) is: “Bringing national education system as a strong and respected social institution to empower all citizens of Indonesia to become enlightened human beings who are able to keep abreast the challenges of the time.”  Its mission:

1. Expand educational access and better quality of education

2. Accommodate rights and needs of children

3. Improve accountability and professionalism of schools

4. Community participation based on decentralization.

Although the published education policy is ridden with politics and ambiguities, the accessibility and quality of education for all citizen of Indonesia clearly emerge as the main goals.



Republic of Indonesia, however, is running new prospective projects such as DBE (Decentralized Basic Education). This project focuses on improving the quality of basic education in primary and junior secondary schools, both public and private. The project has three main goals: (1) strengthening the capacity of local governments and communities to manage educational services (DBE1); (2) enhancing teaching and learning to improve student performance in key subjects such as science, math, and language (DBE2) and; (3) assisting Indonesian youth to gain more relevant life and work skills to better compete in a world economy (DBE3).

The DBE project was designed to be implemented in three phases or cohorts. In the first year of the project (cohort 1), DBE was to implement a project within 25 districts and 50 school clusters (there are 10 schools in a cluster), while in the second year of the program (cohort 2), DBE was to add 25 districts and 50 school clusters for a total of 50 districts and 100 clusters. Cohort 3, which was scheduled to start in late 2009, was eliminated from DBE contracts. Eventually, the DBE programs are expected to reach 9,000 public and private schools; 2.5 million students; 90,000 educators; and 1 million youth through replication. Currently, the DBE program works within 57 local district governments in seven provinces (East and Central Java, Banten, West Java, South Sulawesi, Aceh, and North Sumatra, as well as Jakarta) in three project components: district and school-based management and community participation; teacher training; and life-skills development.

            As part of the Australia-Indonesia Partnership for Reconstruction and Development the Australia-Indonesia Basic Education Program (AIBEP) was founded in 2006. (AusAID. 2010) The AUD$355 million project is the largest educational partnership between Australia and Indonesia. The program supports the Indonesian government in enhancing its educational system by improving accessibility and quality of basic education services and improving the governance of basic education services in disadvantaged areas. The objectives of the program are reflected in its four pillars; improved equitable access to basic education services, improved basic education quality, and internal efficiency, improved governance of basic education services and assurance of resource mobilization in the education sector. Since April 2006, the program constructed 2,074 schools creating more than 330,000 school places. A key target of the program is enhancing gender equality in education services for girls and women. The first pillar of the program stresses the importance of equitable access to education services and thus incorporates gender in its key objective. The Australian – Indonesia Partnership aims to implement gender in education by supporting the Indonesian government in developing gender parity policies and developing infrastructure to improve gender in lagging districts. The AIBEP Independent Completion Report indicates that approximately 80% of the schools surveyed in 2009 have implemented a Gender Policy and 66% of the schools implemented an Inclusive Education Policy. (AusAID Australia – Indonesia Partnership for Basic Education, Independent Completion Report, May 2010,)

The Decentralized Basic Education Project in Indonesia achieved mixed results in its gender assessment. On one hand, it requested the inclusion in the loan agreement of gender provisions such as scholarships for girls, women’s participation in school committees, equal access to in-service training for female teachers and delivered practical benefits to women and girls. In addition, by focusing on equity for poor students from the poorest areas, the project was able to achieve a positive impact for both boys and girls. On the other hand, the assessment found that had the project developed a stronger gender strategy and engaged a gender adviser, as well as undertaking greater analysis and monitoring of the barriers facing children attempting to access quality education, it could have been more effective. Whilst this assessment identified shortcomings in the programming of the ADB in Indonesia to deal with issues of gender, it does exhibit a commitment to gender that is likely to have positive impacts in the future.

In Indonesia, the Early Childhood Education and Development (ECED) program, undertaken with the Ministry of National Education (MoNE), aims to reach 738,000 children in 50 districts over five years with the intention of improving children’s development and readiness for primary school by offering block grants to communities who decide best how to utilise them. To understand the impact of the project, MoNE is conducting an evaluation that tracks over 6,400 children aged 1 to 4 for a period of 3 years. However, in the project’s implementation status and results report there is no mention of children with disabilities. This lack of disaggregated data relating to marginalized groups neglects the needs of disabled children and continues to leave them in the margins of society.


Government of Indonesia is creating new policies and programs in Teacher Education in order to solve teacher competence and other problems. To address the poor performance of Indonesian students on international tests, the GOI enacted the Teacher Law in 2005 aimed at providing a much-needed incentive for teachers to improve their qualifications and professional skills. Essentially, the teacher law mandates a comprehensive package of reforms and applies them uniformly to the whole teaching service. Teachers are required to meet two conditions.  First, all teachers are required to have a minimum qualification of at least four years of post-secondary education or a S1 degree (equivalent to a bachelor’s degree). Second, having achieved the academic qualification, in-service teachers must pass a portfolio test. Pre-service teachers have to take one or two semesters of professional training and pass a certification exam. Certified teachers receive a professional allowance that doubles their salary, and certified teachers who are assigned to remote areas receive a special allowance, which is also equal to their base salary. The Teacher Law is an ambitious effort to upgrade the quality of Indonesian teachers and provides a type of quality control for students about to become practicing teachers (pre-service training) or for upgrading (in-service training) under-qualified teachers.

Teaching-learning methods in the new curriculum (Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi, “Competency Based Curriculum” in 2004) emphasize active, creative, effective, and joyful processes (in Indonesia it is called PAKEM: Pembelajaran Aktif, Kreatif, Efektif, dan Menyenangkan). In this way, the teacher assesses the basic competency of his students, helps to develop other competencies, and/or increases its capacity of existing competencies. PAKEM has been conducted through the implementation of School Based Management since 1999 in collaboration between UNESCO-UNICEF and the Department of National Education Affairs. The implementation of PAKEM is conducted in the Working Club of Teachers (KKG: Kelompok Kerja Guru) and the Working Club of Head of Schools. The former helps teachers in composing and developing teaching-learning subject matters and methods.



Indonesia has the fourth largest education system in the world yet in a landmark education report of 50 nations Indonesia ranked last. For a country that has been experiencing a stable 5 to 6 percent annual economic growth rate and is classed as a middle-income country by the World Bank, it is sad that it’s education system and thus its youth are not benefiting.

So why did it rank so poorly?The answer, as is often the case with developing countries still finding their feet as a democracy, appears to be corruption. The funding is there but it ends up in the pockets of corrupt civil servants and not in classrooms. East 101′s recent investigation highlighted some shocking facts about the Indonesian education system including:

  • Only a third of Indonesian students – in a country where 57 million attend school – complete basic schooling.
  • Education experts say less than half of the country’s teachers possess even the minimum qualifications to teach properly and teacher absenteeism hovers at around 20 percent. Many teachers in the public school system work outside of the classroom to improve their incomes.
  • Indonesian Corruption Watch claims there are very few schools in the country that are clean of graft, bribery, or embezzlement – with 40 percent of their budget siphoned off before it reaches the classroom.


One of the Indonesian government’s responses to these findings has been to restructure the Indonesian curriculum, including postponing teaching science, geography and ENGLISH until students attend secondary school. For a nation economically prospering, geographically located in a region that looks set to be at the forefront of world economics and politics it seems a bemusing choice to make. Moreover, the Indonesian education system does not encourage independent, creative thought but focuses more on learning by rote. Discipline is strict, commendation little and many students are expelled for what in the western world we would consider slight misbehavior. The future success of communities and thus nations depends on today’s youth and the education they access. Nowhere is education more important than in the world’s poorest communities. Many of the above facts characterize the education system in place in the Mentawais. Often schools are closed as there are no teachers to teach. Materials and equipment are lacking or at best basic. Technology non-existent. Teachers poorly qualified. At a Liquid Future, we are working hard to change that. A communications tower is being put in at a nearby town, which will provide internet access. Providing the youth of Katiet and the surrounding villages with access to knowledge and information will empower them to play a role in the many changes their area is going to see over the coming years. The local Mentawai government has already blue-printed extensive parts of the beach area here for tourist development. It would be a win-win situation for the local community, tourists and the environment if the upcoming local generation is informed, knowledgeable leaders able to be a part of it. Government announced a new Curriculum 2013, which costs 82.9 million USD in order to improve Education System, and an access to schools will be fixed in close future.



Indonesia is getting the education the lower the quality. Survey based United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the quality of education in developing countries in Asia Pacific , Indonesia is ranked 10th out of 14 countries . As for the quality of teachers, quality located on level 14 of the 14 developing countries. There are few factors of low quality education in Indonesia: a) Fundamental Problems of Education in Indonesia b) Low Quality Physical Infrastructure c) Low Quality Teachers d) Low Teachers’ Welfare e) Low Student Achievement f) Equitable lack of education opportunities g) The low Relevance to Needs Education h) Costly Cost of Education.

To solve the problems, such as poor quality of infrastructure, poor quality of teachers , and others as described above , in general there are two solutions , namely :

  •  Systemic Solutions , the solutions by changing the social systems that deals with the education system. As we, all know the education system is closely linked to the economic system that is applied. The education system in Indonesia today, applied in the context of the economic system of capitalism, which among other principled minimize the role and responsibilities of the state in public affairs, including education funding.
  • Technical solutions, regarding technical matters directly related to education. The solutions to resolve problems such as teacher quality and student achievement.

Solutions to technical problems returned to the practical efforts to improve the quality of the education system. The low quality of teachers, for example, in addition to the given solution increased prosperity, is also given a solution to the financing of teachers continue to pursue higher education, and provide training to improve the quality of teachers. The low student achievement, for example, given a solution to improve the quality and quantity of learning materials , improve the tools and the means of education , and so on. So with the solutions of education in Indonesia is expected to rise from the ground, to create new generations of high School Based Management, Pancasila and dignified personality.

Indonesian Government is paying a huge attention on Education System, in this case, new Curriculum 2013 was introduced, Teacher Certification Programs, access to knowledge in every single part of country is being fixed. Speaking of the future, Indonesia will give a good quality Education to its citizens; I do believe the Future of Indonesia is bright and it is in the hands of young generation of Indonesia.



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